Official name. Canada.
Status. An independent federative state, a member of the Commonwealth, headed by the Queen of GB.
Area. 9,976,000 sq. km (3,851,790 sq. mi).
Population. 30,1 mln
· About 40% are people of British origin.
· 30% are people of French origin.
· 1% are Indians and Eskimos.
· European minorities (Irish, German, Ukrainian, Scandinavian, Italian, Dutch, Polish).
The “Open Door” policy of immigration which began in the 1890s has meant that Canada’s population is varied.
Language. English, French are both official languages. 20% of the population speak only French, while 13% speak both French and English.
Religion. Roman Catholics 46%, Protestants 41%.
Education. Literacy: 99%.
Canada has about 50 universities. Among them are:
- New Brunswick (Fredericton, 1785),
- Dalhousie (Halifax, 1818),
- McGill (Montreal, 1821),
- Toronto (1827),
- Laval (Quebec, 1852) – French language university,
- Montreal (1876) – French language university.
Capital. Ottawa (920,800).
· Is situated in the north of North America continent.
· Is the 2nd world’s largest country.
· Is bordered by the USA.
· Its only neighbour is the USA.
· Is washed by the Arctic Ocean in the North, by the Atlantic Ocean in the East, by the Pacific Ocean in the West.
· Is about 7,730 km from east to west.
· Shares with the USA 7 of the world’s largest lakes.
· Contains 3 of the globe’s longest 20 rivers.
· Is blessed with the most fresh water of any country.
Canada can be divided into 7 geographic regions:
1. The Appalachian Region, the far eastern area (Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the part of Quebec south of the St. Lawrence River), is hilly and wooded.
2. The St. Lawrence – Great Lakes Lowland (between Quebec City and Windsor, Ontario) includes most of the country’s large cities and towns. Half (1/2) of Canada’s people live here.
3. The Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands. This land is mainly flat, bog, little inhabited.
4. The Canadian Shield (Precambrian) formed 2,5 billion years ago (northern Manitoba, Quebec, Ontario, across Labrador to the northern edge of Alberta) is an ancient, rocky region with rivers, lake-filled timberland. It’s rugged, cool and little developed.
5. The Great Plains (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, parts of Alberta) is a huge, flat region responsible for Canada’s wheat crop.
6. Western Cordillera Region ( British Columbia, the Yukon, parts of Alberta) combines the Rocky Mountains, the Coast Mountains, the Selkirks, Mount Logan (19,850 feet). Mountains dominate this region.
7. The Arctic Region is in the far north.
Rivers: - the St. Lawrence
- the Mackenzie
- the Saskatchewan
- the Columbia
- the Yukon.
Climate. Temperate, varies from freezing winter cold to blistering summer heat.
· The warmest area of Canada is along the US border.
· The warmest areas with the longest summers and the shortest winters are British Columbia’s South, central coast, southern Ontario around the Niagara Peninsula.
· July and August temperatures are + 20